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¿Qué le sucede al cerebro durante las dificultades?

There is no doubt that perceived hardship impacts our biological mechanisms. But it is a complex topic to tackle because adversity is subjective, and research is hampered by conceptualizations that depend on classifications of hardship with ambiguous and inconsistent biological data. Moreover, what constitutes as violence or hardship is culturally constructed and has evolved through time, reflecting not just altering power relations but also how societies and social scientists have conceptualized and interpreted these notions. Likewise, economists and politicians created notions such as poverty. Measures of poverty are defined and applied inconsistently across time and space and were created to target and evaluate government aid and services. In regards to neuroscience, the very general theme is that the region of the brain responsible for learning, memory, and logic, such as the prefrontal cortex, fires less when a person faces a perceived hardship. Instead, the area linked with fear and anxiety, such as the amygdala, fires more frequently. This constant firing rewires the brain's wiring. In severe cases, adversity can cause the size of the brain to shrink and decrease the myelin sheaths which are responsible for conducting the electrical signals in a timely fashion. But the truth is, biology is enormously complex and the last paragraph should not be generalized (as with many other things in life).

Existe una correlación entre el número de experiencias infantiles negativas y la gravedad de los retrasos en el desarrollo y otros problemas más adelante en la vida. Los estudios sobre la biología del estrés han demostrado que la adversidad severa en la infancia, como la pobreza extrema, el abuso o el abandono, pueden activar permanentemente el sistema de respuesta al estrés del cuerpo y alterar la arquitectura del cerebro en desarrollo. Estos cambios persistentes en la maduración neuronal pueden tener graves consecuencias negativas para el desarrollo del cerebro. Estos niños suelen fracasar en su camino académico a pesar de su potencial y continúan desmotivados debido a la falta de modelos a seguir positivos en su entorno. Si van a una escuela con fondos insuficientes, es probable que no tengan recursos de apoyo e incluso puedan ser castigados por su comportamiento causado por retrasos en el desarrollo.
El alcoholismo, la depresión, las enfermedades cardíacas, la diabetes y otras enfermedades crónicas son más comunes entre los adultos que tuvieron mayores adversidades en sus años de formación. 

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